Sugarproof Science

Here we provide the details and links to the research studies cited in the book organized by Chapter. For each citation, the text in bold refers to the relevant text from the Chapter

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31. Aspartame, for example, causes an increase in both gross and fine motor movement

Saravis, S, Schachar, R, Zlotkin, S, Leiter, LA, and Anderson, GH. “Aspartame: effects on learning, behavior, and mood”. Pediatrics, 1990. 86(1): p. 75-83.

32. Even in standardized clinical tests performed in a hospital setting for diabetes or prediabetes, children who have fasted overnight and then consumed a standard dose of sugar can have different blood glucose responses on two different days

Libman, IM, Barinas-Mitchell, E, Bartucci, A, Robertson, R, and Arslanian, S. “Reproducibility of the oral glucose tolerance test in overweight children”. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 93(11): p. 4231-7.

33. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder affects 9 percent of children in the United States, according to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Data and Statistics About ADHD.

34. The children who ate a more Western-style diet—which is high in fat, sugar, and salt and low in omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and folate—were more likely to have ADHD than kids who followed a more traditional Asian or Pacific Rim diet

Howard, AL, Robinson, M, Smith, GJ, Ambrosini, GL, Piek, JP, and Oddy, WH. “ADHD is associated with a “Western” dietary pattern in adolescents”. J Atten Disord, 2011. 15(5): p. 403-11.

35. A smaller study conducted in Spain found similar results, showing that habits like skipping breakfast, eating at fast-food restaurants, and consuming sugar, candy, cola beverages, and noncola soft drinks were associated with a diagnosis of ADHD

Rios-Hernandez, A, Alda, JA, Farran-Codina, A, Ferreira-Garcia, E, and Izquierdo-Pulido, M. “The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents”. Pediatrics, 2017. 139(2).

36. TED-Ed created a useful animated video called How Sugar Affects the Brain that you can find on their website

How Sugar Affects the Brain.

37. My colleagues at the University of Southern California performed an experiment designed to understand the sugar–mood connection

O’Reilly, GA, Huh, J, Schembre, SM, Tate, EB, Pentz, MA, and Dunton, G. “Association of usual self-reported dietary intake with ecological momentary measures of affective and physical feeling states in children”. Appetite, 2015. 92: p. 314-21.

38. Studies have found connections between national levels of sugar consumption and national prevalence of disorders in anxiety, mood, impulse control, and substance abuse and even schizophrenia

Westover, AN and Marangell, LB. “A cross-national relationship between sugar consumption and major depression?”. Depression & Anxiety, 2002. 16(3): p. 118-20.

39. Studies have found connections between national levels of sugar consumption and national prevalence of disorders in anxiety, mood, impulse control, and substance abuse and even schizophrenia

Hoerr, J, Fogel, J, and Van Voorhees, B. “Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders”. J Epidemiol Global Health, 2017. 7(1): p. 81-89.

40. Studies have found connections between national levels of sugar consumption and national prevalence of disorders in anxiety, mood, impulse control, and substance abuse and even schizophrenia

Peet, M. “International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: an ecological analysis”. Br J Psychiatry, 2004. 184: p. 404-8.

41. Men who consumed more than 67 grams of sugar per day were 23 percent more likely to have a diagnosis of depression after five years than men who consumed less than 40 grams of sugar per day

Knuppel, A, Shipley, MJ, Llewellyn, CH, and Brunner, EJ. “Sugar intake from sweet food and beverages, common mental disorder and depression: prospective findings from the Whitehall II study”. Sci Rep, 2017. 7(1): p. 6287.

42. A large meta-analysis of studies around the globe found that drinking tea and coffee was generally protective for depression, whereas regular consumption of sugary beverages was related to a 36 percent higher risk

Kang, D, Kim, Y, and Je, Y. “Non-alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of depression: epidemiological evidence from observational studies”. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2018. 72(11): p. 1506-1516.

43. Another study conducted with 5,498 tenth graders in Norway found that regular consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was linked not only to hyperactivity and behavior problems but also to mental distress and mental difficulties

Lien, L, Lien, N, Heyerdahl, S, Thoresen, M, and Bjertness, E. “Consumption of soft drinks and hyperactivity, mental distress, and conduct problems among adolescents in Oslo, Norway”. Am J Public Health, 2006. 96(10): p. 1815-20.

44. Studies in animals show that a higher consumption of sugars, fructose in particular, during this critical period can magnify stress responses

Harrell, CS, Burgado, J, Kelly, SD, Johnson, ZP, and Neigh, GN. “High-fructose diet during periadolescent development increases depressive-like behavior and remodels the hypothalamic transcriptome in male rats”. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2015. 62: p. 252-64.

45. When kids don’t get enough sleep, they’re more likely to develop obesity and related diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease

Chen, X, Beydoun, MA, and Wang, Y. “Is sleep duration associated with childhood obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2008. 16(2): p. 265-74.